Recitals 11 - 20 (MDR)


(11) Union legislation, in particular Regulation (EC) No 1394/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council 8  and Directive 2004/23/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 9 , is incomplete in respect of certain products manufactured utilising derivatives of tissues or cells of human origin that are non-viable or are rendered non-viable. Such products should come under the scope of this Regulation, provided they comply with the definition of a medical device or are covered by this Regulation.


(12) Certain groups of products for which a manufacturer claims only an aesthetic or another non-medical purpose but which are similar to medical devices in terms of functioning and risks profile should be covered by this Regulation. In order for manufacturers to be able to demonstrate the conformity of such products, the Commission should adopt common specifications at least with regard to application of risk management and, where necessary, clinical evaluation regarding safety. Such common specifications should be developed specifically for a group of products without an intended medical purpose and should not be used for conformity assessment of the analogous devices with a medical purpose. Devices with both a medical and a non-medical intended purpose should fulfil both the requirements applicable to devices with, and to devices without, an intended medical purpose.


(13) As is the case for products that contain viable tissues or cells of human or animal origin, that are explicitly excluded from Directives 90/385/EEC and 93/42/EEC and hence from this Regulation, it should be clarified that products that contain or consist of viable biological materials or viable organisms of another origin in order to achieve or support the intended purpose of those products are not covered by this Regulation either.


(14) The requirements laid down in Directive 2002/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 10  should continue to apply.


(15) There is scientific uncertainty about the risks and benefits of nanomaterials used for devices. In order to ensure a high level of health protection, free movement of goods and legal certainty for manufacturers, it is necessary to introduce a uniform definition for nanomaterials based on Commission Recommendation 2011/696/EU 11 , with the necessary flexibility to adapt that definition to scientific and technical progress and subsequent regulatory development at Union and international level. In the design and manufacture of devices, manufacturers should take special care when using nanoparticles for which there is a high or medium potential for internal exposure. Such devices should be subject to the most stringent conformity assessment procedures. In preparation of implementing acts regulating the practical and uniform application of the corresponding requirements laid down in this Regulation, the relevant scientific opinions of the relevant scientific committees should be taken into account.


(16) Safety aspects addressed by Directive 2014/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council 12  are an integral part of the general safety and performance requirements laid down in this Regulation for devices. Consequently, this Regulation should be considered a lex specialis in relation to that Directive.


(17) This Regulation should include requirements regarding the design and manufacture of devices emitting ionizing radiation without affecting the application of Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom 13  which pursues other objectives.


(18) This Regulation should include requirements for devices' design, safety and performance characteristics which are developed in such a way as to prevent occupational injuries, including protection from radiation.


(19) It is necessary to clarify that software in its own right, when specifically intended by the manufacturer to be used for one or more of the medical purposes set out in the definition of a medical device, qualifies as a medical device, while software for general purposes, even when used in a healthcare setting, or software intended for life-style and well-being purposes is not a medical device. The qualification of software, either as a device or an accessory, is independent of the software's location or the type of interconnection between the software and a device.


(20) The definitions in this Regulation, regarding devices themselves, the making available of devices, economic operators, users and specific processes, the conformity assessment, clinical investigations and clinical evaluations, post-market surveillance, vigilance and market surveillance, standards and other technical specifications, should be aligned with well-established practice in the field at Union and international level in order to enhance legal certainty.

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